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CSE Manual for Scientific Style and Format

How to document scientific writing using the CSE Manual

Citation-Sequence System

In Citation-Sequence (C-S) System, each citation is designated by a number enclosed in parenthesis or by a superscript.  The citations should be numbered and ordered in the Reference list following the sequences in which they first appear within the text. The first cited work in the text should be numbered 1 in the reference list and other cited works should be numbered in the references following their sequences in the text.   If you cite one work or study more than once in the text, its number should be unchanged throughout the text,  as it refers to the same citation in the reference list.

ExamplesFor cyanobacteria, estimating the acclimated light in a population...quenching (22) will allow rapid tracking...field studies.

It has been proposed...spleen and inducing T cells which down-regulate DTH 14.

Citation numbers (more than two) in a continuous sequence: are connected by a dash between first and last numbers. When there are two consecutive citation numbers, they are separated by a comma. Citation numbers not in a continuous sequence are separated by commas without spaces.

Examples: Several investigators have demonstrated that an intact spleen...introduced into the anterior chamber.5,7-9

They deliver an antigen-specific signal...down-regulation of DTH.12,13

The size of the dark-to-light transition ...which poises the electron transport chain (34,55,84-86,94,95,131,135).

If you cite the works or studies in-text within parentheses instead of  superscript, make sure that your in-text citation numbers appear differently from the numbers used as units or terms or symbols in your text.

 Examples:   Life expectancy for a boy born in New York City was 7 years less than the national average in 1901 (12,13); now it is longer (nearly 2 years) than the national average (15).

-……the high value (12g/L) previously reported (17) was later shown to have…..