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Communications Resources

Find Communications resources.

The CRAAP Test


  • When was the information published or posted?
  • Has the information been updated or revised?
  • Does your topic require up-to-date information or will older sources work or perhaps even be preferable?
  • Is there only one date for the entire website or do content pages have dates too?
  • If on a website are the links still live or do they lead to dead or missing pages?


  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information at an appropriate level for your needs (i.e. not too basic or too advanced)?
  • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
  • Is the information just summary of other perspectives or does it add its own content?


  • Who is the publisher/author/source/organization?
  • What qualifies this author/creator to provide this information?
  • What credentials or affiliations does the author/creator have?
  • Is there contact information where the publisher or author can be reached? (If a print or database source try doing a web search for the publisher/author to get more information)
  • If on a website, what URL does the site use and what does that tell you about the source? (.com .edu .gov .org .net)


  • Where does the information come from?
  • Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Are there any references?
  • Is there a bibliography?
  • Can you verify the information from another source?
  • Are there spelling, grammar, or typographical errors?
  • Is the language emotional or appear to be strongly biased?


  • What is the purpose of the information? Is it designed to entertain, inform, educate, sell, persuade?
  • Is the intent of the information clear?
  • Is the information fact or opinion?
  • Does the point of view appear to be objective and impartial?
  • Are the ads clearly separated from the information?
  • What type of ads/images are included?