What are Learning Disabilities?
Learning Disabilities (LD) are nerurologically-based processing problems. These processing problems can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing, or math. They can also interfere with higher level executive function skills such as organization, time planning, and abstract reasoning, skills desperately needed by students. The types of LD are identified by a specific information processing problem (or a combination of problems) with Input, Organization, Memory, & Output:
INPUT Getting the information into the brain
Information arrives at the brain as impulses, transmitted along neurons, primarily from our eyes (visual input) and our ears (auditory input). This input process takes place in the brain. It does not pertain to visual problems such as nearsightedness, or hearing problems. Perceiving one's environment is referred to as "perception."
Children have visual perceptual disabilities or auditory perceptual disabilities, and some have both kinds of perceptual disabilities. Or they may have problems when both types of input are needed at the same time--for example seeing what a teacher writes on the board while listening to the explanation of what is being written.
ORGANIZATION or INTEGRATION Making sense of the information
Once information is recorded in the brain (input), three tasks must be carried out in order to make sense or integrate this information. First, the information must be placed in the right order or sequenced. Then, the information must be understood beyond the literal meaning, abstraction. Finally, each unit of information must be integrated into complete thoughts or concepts, organization.
Sequencing. The individual might have difficulty learning information in the proper sequence. Thus, he might get math sequences wrong, have difficulty remembering sequences such as the months of the year, the alphabet, or the times table. Or, she might write a report with all of the important facts but not in the proper order.
Abstraction. A person might have difficulty inferring the meaning of individual words or concepts. Jokes, idioms, or puns are often not understood. He might have problems with words that might have different meanings depending on how they are used.
Organization. An individual might have difficulty organizing materials, losing, forgetting, or misplacing papers, notebooks, or homework assignments. She might have difficulty organizing her environment, such as her bedroom. Some might have problems organizing time. They have difficulty with projects due at a certain time or with being on time. Organization over time is referred to as Executive Function.
MEMORY Storing and later retrieving this information
Three types of memory are important to learning. “Working memory” refers to the ability to hold on to pieces of information until the pieces blend into a full thought or concept. For example, reading each word until the end of a sentence or paragraph and then understanding the full content. “Short-term memory” is the active process of storing and retaining information for a limited period of time. The information is temporarily available but not yet stored for long-term retention. “Long-term memory” refers to information that has been stored and that is available over a long period of time. Individuals might have difficulty with auditory memory and/or visual memory.
OUTPUT Getting this information back out
Information is communicated by means of words (language output) or through muscle activity such as writing, drawing, gesturing (motor output). An individual might have a language disability (also called expressive language disability) or a motor disability.
Thus, the specific types of processing problems (Input, Organization, Memory & Output) result in learning disabilities. Most often learning disabilities fall into broad categories encompassing combinations of these processing problems--dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, visual and auditory processing disorders, and nonverbal learning disorders. Many students with these LDs often have related conditions, including ADHD and disabilities that affect social skills and executive function.
Different kinds of memory problems
Above from Levine, All kinds of minds, 249-50
Specific Learning Disabilities Umbrella
From the National Center for Learning Disabilities. Dr. Sheldon Horowitz explains how processing problems (input, organization, memory, and output) are manifested in specific learning disorders.
What is Executive Function?
How our Executive Function is effected by Learning Disabilties. A "must listen" for teachers.
Executive Function Resources
From the National Center for Learning Disabilties